Abercius. Bishop of Hieropolis who died before 216.
Acts of John. Probably the earliest of the apocryphal acts, composed in Asia Minor shortly after the middle of the second century, and showing Docetic and Gnostic tendencies.
Acts of Paul and Thecla. Part of the apocryphal Acts of Paul, which was compiled in Asia Minor in the late second century.
Acts of Peter. Written late in the second century, they show the ascetic tendency characteristic of the apocryphal acts.
Ambrose. Bishop of Milan, 374-397; one of the great doctors of the Latin Church; influential ecclesiastical statesman and preacher.
Apostolic Church Order. Compiled in Egypt around 300 from earlier sources, some of which may be second-century.
Apostolic Constitutions. Eight books of legislative and liturgical material compiled and rewritten from earlier sources in the late fourth century, claiming to come from the apostles through Clement of Rome.
Aristides. A Christian from Athens who composed the earliest surviving apology for Christianity, addressed to the emperor Hadrian about A.D. 125.
Athenagoras. An apologist from Athens, who addressed a Plea on behalf of the Christians to Marcus Aurelius about 177.
Bardesanes. A Syrian Christian who died in 222/23; an influential religious teacher whose views were remembered in the church as tainted with Gnostic ideas.
Barnabas. The name given in tradition to an anonymous epistle, or treatise, written probably in Egypt early in the second century, claiming the old covenant (spiritually interpreted) for Christians instead of Jews, who are said to have misunderstood it by taking its prescriptions literally.
Basil of Caesarea. Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, died 379, great church administrator, statesman, and theologian.
Celsus. A Middle Platonist philosopher who about 178 wrote the True Discourse setting forth pagan objections to Christianity.
Clement of Alexandria. A Christian teacher who attempted to harmonize the best in pagan culture with the Christian view; died before 215.
Clement of Rome. One of the bishops of Rome, who in the name of the church at Rome wrote a letter about A.D. 96 to the church at Corinth; later other works were ascribed to him.
Cyprian. Elected bishop of Carthage in 248 after he had been a Christian for only two years; martyred in 258; his extensive correspondence gives a good picture of North African church life.
Cyril of Jerusalem. Bishop of Jerusalem from 348 to 386, whose Catechetical Lectures are a major source for doctrinal and liturgical matters in the fourth century.
Didache. "The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles," the first church order, written in Syria in the late first or early second century.
Didascalia. Church order from Syria in the third century, preserved complete only in Syriac.
Dionysius of Corinth. Bishop of Corinth around 170 who carried on correspondence with churches over a wide area.
Epistle of the Apostles. An apocryphal document from around 150 claiming to report revelations made by Christ after his resurrection.
Epistle to Diognetus. An anonymous apology for Christianity of uncertain date but usually placed in the second century.
Eusebius. Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine from 313 to 339; his Church History contains an important collection of quotations from, and information about, earlier Christian writings.
Galen. A non-Christian medical writer from Pergamum who spent the last thirty years of his life in Rome, where he died in 199.
Gospel of Peter. An apocryphal Gospel written before 190 and expressing Docetic ideas.
Gregory of Nazianzus. Orator, theologian, friend of Basil of Caesarea; for a brief time bishop of Constantinople; lived 330 to 390.
Gregory of Nyssa. Philosophical theologian; brother of Basil of Caesarea; bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia from 371 until about 394.
Hermas. A prophet at Rome in the early second century whose book the Shepherd is a collection of Visions, Mandates (Commands), and Similitudes (Parables) perhaps compiled over a period of several years.
Hippolytus. A presbyter at Rome in the early third century who wrote extensively in Greek and opposed the theology and disciplinary practices of the bishop Callistus; some scholars think more than one person wrote the works commonly attributed to him.
Ignatius. Bishop of Antioch who was taken about 110 to Rome for martyrdom and on the way addressed seven letters to churches and individuals about the pressing problems of the time.
Irenaeus. Bishop of Lyons in Gaul who about 180 wrote in defense of the orthodox Christian faith against Gnosticism.
Jerome. Prolific writer; great scholar; doctor of the Latin church; lived approximately 347 to 420.
John Chrysostom. As presbyter at Antioch, 386 to 397, he established a reputation as the greatest preacher of the Greek church; became bishop of Constantinople until his banishment in 404.
Justin. Born a pagan in Samaria, converted at Ephesus (perhaps), and a Christian teacher in Rome; the most important of the second-century Apologists; known as "Martyr" from the manner of his death.
Lucian of Samosata. Pagan author of satires, born about 120 and died after 180.
Martyrs of Lyons. The churches of Vienne and Lyons in southern Gaul (France) described the persecution of 177 in a letter (preserved by Eusebius) sent to fellow believers in the provinces of Asia and Phrygia.
Melito. Bishop of Sardis who flourished about 170, most of whose extensive writings have not survived.
Odes of Solomon. A collection of religious hymns having no connection with King Solomon, usually dated to the early second century but perhaps later.
Origen. Perhaps the greatest scholar and most prodigious writer of the ante-Nicene church; lived in Alexandria from 185 to 232 and thereafter at Caesarea until his death at Tyre in 253 from tortures inflicted during a persecution.
Papias. Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia, about 130, whose works are known only in fragments quoted by later writers.
Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas. Account of persecution and martyrdoms in Carthage in 203 that included the first-hand reports of Perpetua and Saturus.
Pliny. Known as the Younger to distinguish him from his uncle; Roman governor of Bithynia about 112.
Polycarp. Bishop of Smyrna in the early second century and reputed to have been a disciple of John; the date of his martyrdom is disputed, being placed between 155 and 178.
Second Clement. The oldest extant sermon, from the mid-second century, wrongly ascribed to Clement of Rome.
Sextus. The author of a Christianized version of Sentences or maxims drawn from Hellenistic popular philosophy and compiled toward the end of the second century.
Tatian. Author of an apology, about 170; a Syrian who became a leader of the Encratite movement in Christianity.
Tertullian. First major Christian author in Latin; from Carthage, lived about 155 to 222; in his later years associated with the Montanists.
Theophilus. Bishop of Antioch who about 180 wrote an apology on behalf of Christianity.